Effectively do a good job of research and development of new technology of corn harvester , classified guidance, vigorously carry out the development of Xinshan corn harvester, agriculture and rural areas, will actively promote product trials, support technological development, and solve the bottleneck problem of farmers' entrepreneurship. Two major measures to solve the problem of corn harvester harvesting:
Maize harvesting mechanization technology is the operation technology of cutting, stalk picking, peeling, and straw processing of corn by machinery when the corn is mature, according to its planting method and agronomic requirements.
(I) Scope of Application The mechanized harvest of corn is still in its infancy in Jilin Province. At present, the main push areas are in the middle and western regions of our province, with the focus on Changchun, Siping, Baicheng and Songyuan.
(Two) technical points
1. Because the moisture content of the grain is 22% -28% or even higher during harvesting, it cannot be threshed directly during harvesting, so the method of segmented harvesting is generally adopted. The first stage of harvest refers to directly collecting ears of corn with bracts or peels after picking the ears and stalk treatment; the second stage refers to drying and threshing the ears of corn in the ground or in the field after cooling and drying in the air. The corn mechanized harvest can be roughly divided into the following forms: (1) Combine harvesting: use corn combine harvesters to complete ear picking, peeling, and ear collection (or ear picking and peeling, but the humidity of the grain should not be too high at this time), At the same time, stalk treatment (cutting into yellow silos or crushing and returning to the field) and other operations are performed. The process is as follows: picking-peeling-straw treatment and other three consecutive links. (2) Semi-mechanical harvest: The corn is cut down and laid with a windrower. After a few days of drying, the humidity of the kernel drops below 20%. The ears are picked mechanically or manually, peeled, and then transported to the field for drying. After threshing; straw treatment (cut into sections for storage or crushed to return to the field).
2. Technical performance indicators. The corn mechanized harvester needs to meet the following technical performance indicators:
The yield is ≥82%; the ear loss rate is <3%; the kernel breakage rate is <l%; the fruit impurity content rate is less than 5%; the returning field stalk chopping pass rate is greater than 95%; the stubble height is ≤40cm; Sex> 90%.
3. Key points for technical implementation (1) The corn for straw storage should be harvested in a timely manner, and harvesting should be carried out before the straw dries and turns yellow (at this time, the nutritional content and moisture of the straw are conducive to yellow storage).
(2) Corn harvesting with straw returning to the field should be carried out as soon as possible after 3 to 5 days after the maturity of the kernels, so that the kernels of the corn are fuller and the moisture content of the kernels is lower, which is beneficial to the peeling operation. The straw turns yellow, and the reduced water content is more conducive to crushing the straw, which can relatively reduce power loss.
(3) According to the size of the plot, the planting distance and the quality requirements of the operation, select the appropriate equipment, and work out a specific harvesting route before operation.
4. Operating rules of the implement Before the tractor is started, the gear shifting handle and the power output handle must be placed in the neutral position. Start the engine, check whether the various parts of the tractor are operating normally, run the harvester at low speed, and check the operation of each part. During the transportation of the unit, the cutting head and the straw return device must be lifted to the transportation state, and the width of the road and the condition of the road must be paid attention to. When the tractor starts, engages power, turns, and reverses, it is necessary to honk the horn, observe the front, rear, left, right, and left sides of the unit, and remind extra personnel to leave. Engagement power must be stable, and the throttle is gradually increased from small to large. Ensure the safety of transportation and production operations.
5. Precautions (1) Before entering the field, the unit must understand the basic conditions of the field: corn varieties, planting distance, maturity, drooping of fruit ears and stem lodging; whether there are tree stumps, stones in the ground, etc. Fields, ditches, access conditions, land carrying capacity; whether it is necessary to manually open roads, clear the site, remove lodged corn, etc., clean up in advance; choose the entrance and walking routes according to the size and shape of the plot in order to facilitate the transportation vehicle Install the vehicle and minimize the number of times the locomotive enters the ground.
(2) When starting a period of operation, stop to observe the status of harvest loss and straw crushing, and check whether the technical indicators meet the requirements.
(3) During the operation, avoid obstacles such as stones and tree stumps, so as not to damage the cutting head and damage the claw hammers of the straw return device.
(4) The feeding amount during harvesting is limited. Different corn varieties, growing conditions, plant density, moisture content, and harvesting speed are also different. Therefore, at the beginning, harvest at a low speed, and then increase the speed appropriately. The feeding amount should be tuned with the walking speed, and pay attention to observe whether there is a blockage in the Fuhe and ear picking mechanisms.
(5) According to the distance of the plot and the harvest and transportation conditions, reasonably match the transportation vehicles to improve the harvest and transportation efficiency.
(6) When the harvester reaches the ground, do not immediately decelerate and stop, and continue to advance at a distance at a high speed so that the straw is completely crushed.
(7) Before idling for 1-2 minutes, all the ears of corn in the picking table and the ear elevator must be sent to the collection box to ensure that there are no residues on the cutting head and various components.
(8) The following main technical indicators must be achieved when corn is harvested: the grain loss rate must be ≤ 2%; the average height of the ears must be ≤ 80 mm; and the unevenness of the straw spread must be ≤ 30%.
This article is provided by Xinshan corn harvester manufacturer http://lznsh.cn .